Couple unable to achieve pregnancy after 1 year of regular unprotected intercourse.

Male factors accounts for 30%

Female factors accounts for 30%

Combined – 30%

Unexplained – 30%


Ovarian factors : –


Effect of age

Chronic anovulation- PCOS

Central and hypothalamic anovulation

Ovarian cysts – endometriosis and others


Tuboperitoneal factors: –




Chlamydia trachomatis


Previous sterilization


Uterus: –



Mullerian malformation




Cervix: –


Anatomical distortion

Thin cervical channel

Iatrogenic (Conization)




Immunologic factors: –


– Serum

– Semen

– Sperm


– Serum

– Vaginal and cervical secretions

– Follicular fluid

Unexplained :-


Abnormal tubal function

Failed fertilization

Poor embryo development

Failed implantation



Infertility may be treated with medicine, surgery, artificial insemination or assisted reproductive technology based on couples test results and other factors.

There are severe grades of severity and its important to establish a prognosis after a work up.

Doctors use the histories of both partners and may run tests such as;


  • Sperm studies
  • ovulation tests,
  • Ultrasonography (USG)
  • Hystero-salpingography (HSG)
  • Laparoscopy (Diagnostic / Operative)
  • Hysteroscopy (Diagnostic /Operative)


In the form of pills / injections, these release hormones that induce ovulation to boost egg production and make the uterus more receptive to embryo implantation.


Specially prepared (washed) sperm is inserted directly into the uterus through a thin, flexible catheter during IVI, the most common fertility method.

Doctor might recommend that you take fertility drugs as well to increase the changes to fertilization.

implanted in your uterus and the rest are stored. Multi step process (called a cycle) in which yours eggs are extracted and fertilized with sperm in laboratory. Once embryos develop, one or two are

It is otherwise known as Fertility Enhancing Endoscopic Surgery. Used to correct anatomical abnormalities, i,e septate uterus, subseptate uterus, difficult cannulation, removal of scarring and clear blockages, in either the man or the women.